Defining The Notes Formatting

Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the reference appears. Endnotes are similar to footnotes but instead of being added to the bottom of each page they are grouped together at the end of the document. We use the term Notes to refer to a footnote or an endnote.

RefWorks does not actually create the endnote or footnote in the document, but is used to insert and format the citations. You create an endnote or footnote using your word processor.

For information on how to format your paper with footnotes, click here.  

Notes are comprised of two parts:  

Notes Output Settings

We recommend establishing the Note Settings first and then adding the note definitions.

  1. From the Citation Type drop-down, select In-Text Citation and Notes (alternatively it could be Notes only).

  2. Click the Notes tab in the main area of the output style editor.

  3. Click Notes Settings to expand and display the options available.

  4. Complete the options detailed below.

 Include References in Bibliography

Click this option to include the references you are putting in notes in a bibliography at the end of the paper as well. The bibliography at the end of the paper is in the format you specified in the Bibliography Settings area of the program (alphabetical by last name for example).

If the output style requires in-text citations and notes and you select this option, the bibliography at the end of the paper includes all of the references in both. If you do not select this option, the bibliography at the end of the paper includes only the references you have in the in-text citations.

Note Separator

Note separator determines what punctuation will be used between notes if you cite them together. For example, if you cite {{1;2}} in the note, the separate between those two references in the final paper is the punctuation entered in this box. The default is a comma.

Line Spacing

Select the appropriate spacing, single, double or triple.

Handling Repeated References

Due to space considerations with notes, some styles require that repeated citations be handled differently than the first instance of the reference. You have three options here:

Option

Description

No Special Handling

All of the information in the reference is repeated.

Show only author & cited pages

Only the author name and the specific pages for this reference are repeated.

Show only author, title & cited pages

Author name, title of the article or book and the pages for the reference are repeated.

  1. In some instances the style may require the last names only or just the first author. Selecting Include Last Name Only enters the authors in the format specified for the note (e.g., if more than 6 only list the first 3 etc.) with just the last name rather than the last and first name or initials. Select Include First Author Only, if you want only the first author listed. It appears in the format you specify, last name only if selected or what is defined for the note.  

Handling Repeated Consecutive References

When you cite the same reference twice in a row, many output styles require special handling. You have three options plus special handling for the replacing text (e.g. italics of ibid).:

Option

Description

No Special Handling

All of the information in the reference is repeated.

Replace repeated data with... ibid

The source information is replaced by the text in this box. The default is ibid., but you may change this by deleting it and inserting a new term.

Omit

Omits the consecutive note.

Handling Repeated Consecutive Sources

In some instances an output style requires special handling for a consecutive reference from the same source. For example if you are citing a second article from the same journal the journal name, volume, and issue would be identical. Select any special handling for the replacing text (e.g. italics of ibid).

Option

Description

No Special Handling

All of the information in the reference is repeated.

Replace repeated data with... ibid

The source information is replaced by the text in this box. The default is ibid., but you may change this by deleting it and inserting a new term. Leave blank if required that repeated source information not be shown.

Creating Notes Definitions

The Reference types area in the Notes section of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the fields, the punctuation and any formatting.  

You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style.

Use any examples in the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style.

Important Note:  every Notes format style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined.  The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type.  If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database.  

To create a note definition:

  1. Click the Notes tab.

  2. By default, your notes formatting will be created for references that are in a single language.  You have the option to add additional language formats if your notes will have references in more than one language). To create an output style that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages.

  3. Under Reference Types, select Generic. Remember, you must have a Generic format, so we suggest starting with that.

    Different reference types often require different types of formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to make modifications as necessary.

    To copy the Generic reference type format:

    • Under the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to create. Notice that the Output Field Order box is now empty.

    • Verify the Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list.

    • Click Copy.

    Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to define Book, Section you can copy from Book, Whole then make any needed modifications.

    Tip:  If you are creating the output style for a publication in the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example.

    If you are creating an output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Journal example.

  4. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for the Reference Type, Generic. (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and click the right arrow icon rightarrow.jpg to move it to the Output Field Order box.

  5. Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear.

  6. Under Preview of Note Output, click the Update button to see the fields you have added.  You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in order to see the updated information.

    Tip
    :  If you want to change the order of the fields, click on the field you want to move and use the up and down arrow icons uparrow.jpgdownarrow.jpg located on the right side of the Output Field Order area.  You can also delete fields by highlighting the field and clicking the left arrow icon leftarrow.jpg.

  7. Under Output Field Order, select a field and look at the Field Settings to the right of the window. Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to guide you through the style defining process. The first group of settings determines the formatting of the field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the field. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in the reference is set to print or when the source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume, very little information is needed. In others, such as Author, there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined.

Note:  Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate \t (tab) or \n (carriage return) character.

Tip:  Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for defining a periodical are listed below.  This will help you become familiar with the different types of options available for the various fields.

Tip:  A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is normally included with the field it is used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the punctuation with the field that follows.  

RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for the field in a particular record.  If you have defined the field setting to include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it.  So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks.

You may need to modify your format to include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is a good example.  It generally appears at the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for the field before page number in the “precede with” area of the page field setting.).

You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming.  We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for odd punctuation as well.

Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator)

Field Comments

Enter any information you would like to include about this field.  This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Field Settings

Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation.

Author Settings

Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)

Field Comments

Enter any information you would like to include about this field.  This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Field Settings

Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation.

Title Settings

Periodical Field

Field Comments

Enter any information you would like to include about this field.  This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Field Settings

Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation.

Periodical Settings

Note:   If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None.  When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.).

Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields

Field Comments

Enter any information you would like to include about this field.  This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Field Settings

Options for these fields are very similar. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field. RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for the number.  Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation.

Add Text to Output Field

Adding this field to an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the text in the Text to insert box and click the box next to the appropriate format.

One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type. A book section frequently requires you to include information on the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to create a format like:

Book Section Title. In Book Title.

In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option.

Other Fields

All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of these fields may be useful for various reasons. For example, if you are printing a note from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for reference.

Reference Types Not Defined

If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for the Generic type. In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the Book Reference Type.